if your PC is a desktop computer, plugging in the headphones do not automatically switch the sound from the speakers to the headphone jacks, you have to manually switch to the preferred playback device using software.. some laptops and many desktops require manual resettings for the preferred Playback devices..
and to do that, click on the 'Start' button in Windows 10 and search for "Sound"; the first search result should be "change system sounds".. don't worry, click on it..
in the sound window, there should be three tabs "Playback, Recording, Sounds and Communications".. to change the preferred playback device, click on the 'Playback' tab, Right click on the preferred playback device and click on 'set as default device' and/or 'set as default communication device'..
* a communication device is what you use to answer/make a call or a video-call on the PC..
similarly, plugging in the microphone into the Mic jack does not guarantee that the recording is switched to the plugged device.. so click on the 'Recording' tab, and set the preferred recording device by right click on the device and set it as the default or the communication default..
and hope that fixes the problem..
if that does not fix the problem, the problem may have been originated from a recent Windows update or a device update.. the updates themselves may not be the problem, but the way it was transferred and handled over the internet from thousands of miles away and all the way to your computers, may have altered a small bunch of ones and zeros in these updates when it was installed into your PC..
Code 10 error is generated when Device Manager can not start the hardware device, a situation usually caused by outdated or corrupted drivers; but also a hardware failure (something's broken)..
- whenever something funny happens, i often shut down the PC and then restart it again; Windows often fixes itself after a quick proper shutdown.. (not a restart.. just shutdown.. and leave it for few seconds before turning it back on)..
- if that fails, then i recommend a System Restore..
for the past few weeks, there has been a number of updates from Microsoft that may have caused the problem.. normally, installing such updates do not cause such a problem but even PCs can make a mistake in installing them - i am not trying to tell you NOT to install updates or that you should not trust these updates, but sometimes a PC can run into mistakes while installing those updates..
you just need to reinstall these updates back again.. but to do so, we need to go back to a time when your PC worked perfectly..
we do not have a time machine, but we have something called System Restore..
a System Restore rolls-back the drivers and the settings that worked in the past..
simply click on the Start button and type 'Restore'; the search result should give you "create a new restore point".. don't worry.. click on it.. it will open a window with 'System Restore' button in the middle, click on it..
hopefully, your system has created a restore point - usually few weeks ago or few days ago.. just click on the nearest date when your PC performed well before all the trouble has started.. and click next.. and it will tell you to restart.. and hopefully it would work well for you..
if your C: drive is near full, or if all the restore points were deleted, it will tell you that there are no such points are available..
- System Restore should be able to restore back the sound drivers that worked, but it is possible that the drivers were corrupted beyond repair.. so follow 'Arimatthewdavies' advice, go to the System Manager by clicking on the Start button, search for 'Device Manager' and run it.. under Audio Input and Output, DOUBLE -click on the sound device in question (the one that generated the code10 error)..
a window should appear with the Code 10 Error that you have mentioned.. look at the tabs "General, Driver, Details and Events".. click on the 'Driver' tab.. you can attempt to fix the problem by pressing on 'Update the Driver' or 'Roll Back the Driver'.. but at this point, i would prefer more nuclear solutions by 'Uninstalling the Driver'.. Restart the PC.. hope that the PC would automatically start downloading the fresh new sound drivers or else you would need to open again the Device Manager to manually install those sound drivers..
the sound driver may appear as an unknown driver of which a double click would open the options to install or check for updates for this driver..
- if that does not work.. if the sound driver is still not working, then there are 2 options.. bring the PC to the nearest repair shop (preferably at the same dealership) to trouble shoot the problem.. or install a sound card..
a sound card?!.. lol, that sounds so 1990s!!..
there are more accessible options such as a USB to Audio or better known as DAC (digital to audio converters).. basically it is a USB device with both Mic and headphone jack on it.. and the price can range anywhere between US$3 to US$1000.. unfortunately cheap DACs suffer from interference and poor sound quality - especially while recording..
more expensive DAC have noise filters and better electronic shielding.. best DACs start from US$80 range..
some graphic cards have inbuilt sound cards on them but at this point you would be better off seeing someone at the dealership or at the repair shop who knows more about those stuff..
all the best..