A condenser mic needs external power. Using either phantom power off the console through the built in mic preamps, a stand alone mic preamp, or through a battery, or even a separate power supply.
Most of your basic studio quality mics are condensers. Large diaphragm vocal mics require power. There are condensers that you can use for vocals and instruments. Audio Technica makes a great low priced condenser called the AT2020. Under $100 and is a great entry level mic. I've recorded with it and it sounds awesome for the price. Otavia, Marshall, AKG, Nady are some of the other brands that have decent studio condensers for the under $200 range. Companies like Blue, Neumann, Rode have high end mics in the thousands of dollars range.
Whatever mic you decide on should be used with a decent mic preamp. There are lots of them. Focusrite, ART, M-Audio are some of the home studio preferred mic pre's that you can get. Go to HarmonyCentral.com and read some of the reviews to get a better idea on what you need and what fits your budget.
As far as dynamic. No power needed. I've always used Shure SM57s and SM58s to record with. You can get both for under $180. Durable and can handle sound pressure from drums.